Semblance Hypothesis

  (towards a theory since 2017)



For peer-review


Vadakkan K.I (2019) Internal sensation of pleasure can be explained as a specific conformation of semblance: Inference from electrophysiological findings. Peerj Preprints (If we can explain memories as first-person inner sensations, how do we explain inner sensation of pleasure? Several disparate findings from nucleus accumbens provide a verifiable mechanism that can also interconnect those findings) Article

Vadakkan K.I (2018-19) A derived mechanism of nervous system functions shows features capable to have evolved and provides a testable explanation for age-related neurodegeneration. Peerj Preprints (The last stage of ontogeny is expected to remain throughout adulthood. Examination shows that a neuronal circuitry where IPLs can form and function can be evolved from simple excitable cells. It also shows that the last stage is preceded by a transient inter-cellular fusion event and is expectedd to "turn on" the expression of specific proteins that arrests fusion at the intermediate stage of hemifusion. Based on the semblance hypothesis, every event of learning relies on this mechanism to prevent inter-spine fusion. Since any deficiency in this mechanism can lead to inter-spine fusion and since spine loss is a common finding in age-related neurodegeneration, it prompts us to ask the questions, "Is this what determines neuronal life span?" "Will it not limit our ability to learn as we age?" "Can we understand this event better so that we can try methods to artificially maintain the ability to stabilize the inter-spine hemifusion stage to prevent age-related neurodegeneration and increase our longevity?" Article

Vadakkan K.I (2018) A learning mechanism completed in milliseconds and capable of transitioning to stabilizable forms can generate working, short and long-term memories - A verifiable mechanism. Peerj Preprints (Based of semblance hypothesis, the learning-induced change at physiological time-scales of milliseconds remains as the core change sufficient for retrieving memory as a first-person internal senation during working memory. Maintaining this inter-spine change through its stabilization allows continued retrieval of the same memory after short and long time intervals). Article

Vadakkan K.I (2018) Extreme degeneracy of inputs in firing a neuron leads to loss of information when neuronal firing is examined. Peerj Preprints (A very small fraction of inputs is able to fire a neuron. In certain circumstances, even fraction of a sigle postsynaptic potential can fire a neuron. The importance of degeneracy of codons in the genetic code reminds us that there is a background utility behind such observations. This work shows that information storage and retieval should be taking place at the level of the dendritic spines and the findings of semblance hypothesis perfectly match this observation). Article

Vadakkan K.I (2016) A first-principle of the nervous system functions. Biorxiv (The initially derived mechanism of semblance hypothesis is verified using its ability to be derived using constraints from different sets of observations from various levels. Using the derived mechanism, it was possible to triangulate large number of findings of both the normal and "loss of function" states of the system. The derived mechanism at the deep level can be viewed as a first-principle of the system). Article


Vadakkan K.I (2018) A potential mechanism for first-person internal sensation of memory provides evidence for the relationship between learning and LTP induction. Behavioural Brain Research  (We have been searching for an LTP-like mechanism in the nervous system for nearly 50 years. The present work has provided all the necessary evidence for a derived mechanism of natural learning occurring at physiological time-scales and how this mechanism is scaled-up during experimental LTP induction. Its predictions can be verified). Article

Vadakkan K.I (2016) Substantive nature of sleep in updating the temporal conditions necessary for inducing units of internal sensations. Sleep Science. (Sleep is part of the substance of the nervous system. The system becomes operational only in the presence of sleep. Without sleep, the system cannot continue to function. In fact, without sleep, there is no system! This finding provides evidence for the hypothesized mechanism). Article

Vadakkan K.I (2016) Neurodegenerative disorders share common features of "loss of function" states of a proposed mechanism of nervous system functions. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. (This work was carried out with a simple idea that just by sitting in a workshop and watching how defects of the cars are being repaired for a period time, we will get some idea how a car works normally. In the case of the nervous system, the observations in various neurodegenerative disorders match with the defects in the hypothesised mechanism). Article

Vadakkan K.I (2016) Rapid chain-generation of inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs can trigger seizure generation: Evidence for potential interconnections from pathology to behavior. Epilepsy & Behavior (This work provides an opportunity to triangulate large number of findings from different levels to examine a possible normal operational mechanism of the system) Article

Vadakkan K.I (2016) The functional role of all postsynaptic potentials examined from a first-person frame of reference. Reviews in the Neurosciences (Explained how a neuronal soma is flanked by a large number of internal sensory processing units and their relationship with neuronal firing). Article

Vadakkan K.I (2015) A framework for the first-person internal sensation of visual perception in mammals and a comparable circuitry for olfactory perception in Drosophila. SpringerPlus (This work explains and interconnects several third person findings in visual perception and optics. Presence of a comparable circuitry in a different sensory system in a remote animal species provides support for the presented mechanism). Article

Vadakkan K.I (2015; Revised 2017) The necessity for the observer to examine the system from a first-person frame of reference to trace the path of generation of inner sensations. F1000 Research.  Article

Vadakkan K.I (2015) A pressure-reversible cellular mechanism of general anesthetics capable of altering a possible mechanism for consciousness. SpringerPlus (This paper explains how anesthetic requirement is reduced in the presence of dopamine that causes enlargement of dendritic spines). Article

Vadakkan K.I (2014) An electronic circuit model of the inter-postsynaptic functional LINK designed to study the formation of internal sensations in the nervous system.
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems. Article

Vadakkan K.I (2013) A supplementary circuit rule-set for the neuronal wiring. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (A testable circuit feature that was evading our attention is explained in this paper).

Vadakkan K.I (2012) A structure-function mechanism for schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychiatry (This work has identified rapidly reversible, yet stabilizable membrane hemi-fusion as a possible mechanism for inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs). Article

Vadakkan K.I (2012) The nature of "internal sensations" of higher brain functions may be derived from the design rules for artificial machines that can produce them. Journal of Biological Engineering. Article

Vadakkan K.I (2011) Processing semblances induced through inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs, presumed biological parallels of K-lines proposed for building artificial intelligence. Frontiers in Neuroengineering. Article

Vadakkan K.I (2011) A possible mechanism of transfer of memories from the hippocampus to the cortex. Medical Hypotheses. Article

Vadakkan K.I (2010) Framework of consciousness from semblance of activity at functionally LINKed postsynaptic membranes. Frontiers in Psychology (Consciousness Research). Article

Video presentations

1. A testable hypothesis of brain functions   Video

2. How to study inner sensations? Examples from mathematics    Video

3. Neurons and Synapses    Video

4. List of third person findings and the derivation of the solution for the nervous system     Video    

5. Constraints to work with   Video

6. Induction of units of inner sensation    Video

7. Why do we need to sleep?    Vidieo

8. A potential mechanism for neurodegeneration     Video

9. LTP: An explanation by semblance hypothesis       Video

10. A framework for consciousness    Video

11. A potential mechanism of anaesthetic agents      Video


Vadakkan K.I (2010) Semblance hypothesis of memory. 3rd Edition ISBN: 978-1-4502-5620-9

Vadakkan K.I (2008) Semblance hypothesis of memory. 2nd Edition ISBN: 978-1-4401-0754-2

Vadakkan K.I (2007) Semblance of activity at the shared post-synapses and extracellular matrices - A structure function hypothesis of memory. ISBN:978-0-5954-7002-0 Download


Center for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. August 11th, 2017. Title: Why did Camillo Golgi disagree with the Neuron doctrine?

Society for Neuroscience annual meeting - Satellite event. October 17th, 2015. Title: Examining nervous system functions from a first-person frame of reference using the semblance hypothesis.

Society for Neuroscience annual meeting - Satellite event. November 17th, 2014. Title: Exploring the mind using the semblance hypothesis.

Society for Neuroscience annual meeting - Satellite event. November 2013. Title: Internal Sensations, Artificial intelligence and the semblance hypothesis.

Florida State University, Department of Scientific Computing seminar. February, 2013. Title: Transferable units from natural Intelligence: Proof requires AI development.

University of New Mexico, Department of Computer Science colloquium. January 2013. Title: Natural intelligence to artificial intelligence - A new route that can be taken. (video). I apologize to molecular biologists for my comment that discoveries were over in molecular biology. It is the lack of matching advancement in neuroscience that made me to say that).

Society for Neuroscience annual meeting - Satellite event. October 15th, 2012. Title: Reducing internal sensation of retrieved memories using the semblance hypothesis.

Society for Neuroscience annual meeting - Satellite event. November 13th, 2011. Topic: Semblance hypothesis of memory: Computational modelling and development of artificial circuits.

Society for Neuroscience annual meeting - Satellite event. November 14th, 2010. Topic: Semblance hypothesis of memory - Transfer of memories from the hippocampus to the cortex.

Society for Neuroscience annual meeting - Satellite event. October 18th, 2009. Topic: Semblance hypothesis of memory - A presentation.


Vadakkan K.I (2013) A structural unit of brain network that can operate in unison with synaptic connections and can impart needed functions. Cell symposium on the topic "Networked Brain" at the Society for Neuroscience meeting November 8 Poster

Vadakkan K.I (2012) Induced p-semblances as a possible mechanism for the internal sensation of pain. Society for Neuroscience Annual meeting, Oct.16. Abstract 674.25/HH10

Vadakkan K.I (2012) Perception as the integral of semblances formed by re-activation of existing previously formed functional LINKs between the postsynapses. Cognitive Neuroscience Society meeting, April 3rd, Abstract H90

Vadakkan K.I (2011) Semblions induced through inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs, biological parallels of K-lines, as basic units of internal sensations. Society for Neuroscience conference, Abstract 722.16/XX68

Vadakkan K.I (2010) Framework of consciousness from the semblance hypothesis of memory. Toward a science of consciousness Conference, Tucson, University of Arizona. Abstract No: P-8

Vadakkan K.I (2009) Delusions, cognitive impairment and the therapeutic effect of dopamine receptor antagonists in schizophrenia - An explanation through the semblance hypothesis of memory. Society for Neuroscience conference, Poster Abstract: 644.3/U18

Vadakkan K.I (2008) Oxidation-state dependent interconnections between dendritic spines provide early evidence in support of semblance hypothesis of memory. Society for Neuroscience conference, Abstract: 239.19/E16

Vadakkan K.I (2008) Examination of the premises of semblance hypothesis that can explain retrieval-efficient mechanism of memory at appropriate time-scales. Second Canadian Association for Neuroscience annual meeting, Montreal. Abstract A-G 118